“CHALCOGENS” are elements belonging to periodic table Group 16 (G16) and include the elements oxygen, sulfur, selenium and tellurium. These elements, their bio-geological cycles and interactions with metals, still have many unrevealed scientific curiosities and technological potentials. The 1st G16 conference was held in June 2008 in Wageningen, The Netherlands, on the conclusion of the Marie Curie Excellence Grant “Novel Biogeological Methods for Heavy Metal Removal”, headed by Prof Piet Lens. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th G16 conferences were held in Delft, The Netherlands and the 5th one in Goa, India. The conferences overviewed the wide range of topics related to CHALCOGEN research. The 6th International conference on Research Frontiers in Chalcogen Cycle Science & Technology, to be held in Naples (Italy), will serve as a platform for academicians, researchers, scientists, plant managers, and industrial experts to discuss and exchange the latest scientific and technological advancements in chalcogen-based and waste-to-energy research.